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RF Radiation Safety Resources
Behavioral and Cognitive Effects of Microwave Exposure
This paper presents an overview of the recent behavioral literature concerning microwave exposure and discusses behavioral effects that have supported past exposure standards. Other effects, which are based on lower levels of exposure, are discussed as well, relative to setting exposure standards. The paper begins with a brief discussion of the ways in which behavioral end points are investigated in the laboratory, together with some of the methodological considerations pertinent to such studies when radio frequency (RF) exposure is involved. It has been pointed out by several sources that exposure to RF radiation can lead to changes in the behavior of humans and laboratory animals that can range from the perceptions of warmth and sound to lethal body temperatures.http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/scc28/sc4/Behavioral effects.pdf
The Impacts of Radiofrequency Radiation from Mobile Phone Antennas
This report addresses the evidence for the impact of radiofrequency radiation from mobile phone antennas on people’s health and well-being. Mobile phone antennas emit high frequency (radiofrequency) radiation that differs from naturally-occurring radiation in frequency and characteristics of the signal.http://www.emraustralia.com.au/mobile_phone_towers_report.pdf
COMAR Technical Information Statement the IEEE exposure limits for radiofrequency and microwave energy
Excessive exposure to radiofrequency (RF) or microwave energy produced by radio transmitters, some industrial equipment, and other sources can be hazardous. For this reason, the IEEE has developed limits for human exposure to RF energy, and these limits have been widely influential around the world. The IEEE standard represents a consensus of scientific opinion about safe levels of exposure to RF energy, and its scientific rationale is consistent with conclusions of numerous expert groups and health agencies throughout the world. Nevertheless, laypeople often have questions about the adequacy of the standard or the process by which it was developed. This Technical Information Statement discusses the development and rationale for exposure limits for RF energy.http://ewh.ieee.org/soc/embs/comar/standardsTIS.pdf
Neurological Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation
The close proximity of a mobile telephone antenna to the user's head leads to the deposition of a relatively large amount of radiofrequency energy in the head. The relatively fixed position of the antenna to the head causes a repeated irradiation of a more or less fixed amount of body tissue. Exposure to RFR from mobile telephones is of a short-term, repeated nature at a relatively high intensity, whereas exposure to RFR emitted from cell masts is of long duration but at a very low intensity. The biological and health consequences of these exposure conditions need further understanding.http://www.mapcruzin.com/radiofrequency/henry_lai2.htm
ICNIRP: Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Time-varying
Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields
(up to 300 GHz)
The main objective of this publication is to establish guidelines for limiting EMF exposure that will provide protection against known adverse health effects. An adverse health effect causes detectable impairment of the health of the exposed individual or of his or her offspring; a biological effect, on the other hand, may or may not result in an adverse health effect. Studies on both direct and indirect effects of EMF are described; direct effects result from direct interaction of fields with the body, indirect effects involve interactions with an object at a different electric potential from the body. Results of laboratory and epidemiological studies, basic exposure criteria, and reference levels for practical hazard assessment are discussed, and the guidelines presented apply to occupational and public exposure.http://www.icnirp.de/documents/emfgdl.pdf
OET 65: Evaluating Compliance with FCC Guidelines for Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields
This revised OET Bulletin 65 has been prepared to provide assistance in determining whether proposed or existing transmitting facilities, operations or devices comply with limits for human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) fields adopted by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). The bulletin offers guidelines and suggestions for evaluating compliance.Engineering_Technology/Documents/bulletins/oet65/oet65.pdf
Barth A, Winker R, Ponocny-Seliger E, Mayrhofer W, et al. (2007): A meta-analysis for neurobehavioral effects due to electromagnetic field exposure emitted by GSM mobile phones. Occup Environ Med online 10 Oct 2007. Doi:10.1136/oem.2006.031450
Cook CM, Thomas AW, Prato FS (2002): Human electrophysiological and cognitive effects of exposure to ELF magnetic and ELF modulated RF and microwave fields: A review of recent studies. Bioelectromagnetics 23:144-157.
Cook CM, Saucier DM, Thomas AW, Prato FS (2006): Exposure to ELF and ELF-modulated radiofrequency fields: The time course of physiological and cognitive effects observed in recent studies (2001-2005). Bioelectromagnetics 27:613-627.
D'Andrea J (1999): Behavioral evaluation of microwave irradiation. Bioelectromagnetics 20:64-74.
D'Andrea JA, Adair E, de Lorge JO (2003): Behavioral and cognitive effects of microwave exposure. Bioelectromagnetics Supplement 6:S39-62.
D'Andrea JA, Chou CK, Johnston SA, Adair ER (2003): Microwave effects on the nervous system. Bioelectromagnetics Supplement 6:S107-147.
Hamblin DL, Wood AW (2002): Effects of mobile phone emissions on human brain activity and sleep variables. Int J Radiat Biol 78:659-669.
Hermann DM, Hossmann K-A (1997): Neurological effects of microwave exposure related to mobile communication. J Neurol Sci 152:1-14.
Hossmann K-A, Hermann DM (2003): Effects of electromagnetic radiation of mobile phones on the central nervous system. Bioelectromagnetics 24:49-62.
Lin JC (2004): Human electroencephalograms (EEG) and mobile-phone radiation. Radio Science Bulletin 308:52-54.
Lin JC. Mental process of children and mobile-phone electromagnetic fields. Radio Science Bulletin 2006;316: 42-44 (March ’06).
Sienkiewicz Z, Jones N, Bottomley A. Neurobehavioural effects of electromagnetic fields (2005): Bioelectromagnetics 26, issue S7:S116-126.
Valentini E, Corcio G, Moroni F, Ferrara M, et al. (2007): Neurophysiological effects of mobile phone electromagnetic fields on humans: A comprehensive review. Bioelectromagnetics 28:415-432.
Westerman R, Hocking B (2004): Diseases of modern living; neurological changes associated with mobile phones and radiofrequency radiation in humans. Neuroscience letters 361:13-16.